This concluding chapter attempts to present a fuller picture of the relationship between Yemenis and state/empire by looking at class, ethnicity, and citizenship. States/empires play an important role in generating societal hierarchies. However, in looking at citizenship, ethnicity, and class within the state framework, there is a risk in only taking into account these secular phenomena. In Djibouti and Ethiopia, the categorization of Yemenis by the state has always taken note of religion. The fact that Yemenis are Muslim has always brought them to the attention of state and imperial powers. Thus the chapter completes the picture with a brief discussion on the impact of religion in the state/empire framework.
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