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Contesting Antiquity in EgyptArchaeologies, Museums, and the Struggle for Identities from World War I to Nasser$
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Donald Malcolm Reid

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9789774166891

Published to Cairo Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.5743/cairo/9789774166891.001.0001

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Egyptian Egyptology and Pharaonism in the Wake of Tutankhamun, 1922–1930

Egyptian Egyptology and Pharaonism in the Wake of Tutankhamun, 1922–1930

(p.109) 4 Egyptian Egyptology and Pharaonism in the Wake of Tutankhamun, 1922–1930
Contesting Antiquity in Egypt

Donald Malcolm Reid

American University in Cairo Press

The discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb hastened the transformation of Egyptology into a scholarly profession open to Egyptians and accelerated the growth of pharaonism among the public. Led by Selim Hassan and Sami Gabra, the scant second generation of Egyptian Egyptologists came home from studying in Europe in the late 1920s to begin careers in the Antiquities Service and the new state-run Egyptian (now Cairo) University. The university's successful new school of Egyptology soon graduated Ahmad Fakhry and Labib Habachi, who both became prominent among the third generation of Egyptian Egyptologists. In the 1920s, pharaonism—interest and pride in ancient Egypt—became a prominent stand of Egyptian territorial nationalism, with King Fuad, Saad Zaghlul's Wafd, and Liberal Constitutionalist Muhammad Husayn Haykal all competing in utilizing pharaonic themes. In the visual arts, Mahmoud Mukhtar's granite sculpture Nahdat Misr (Revival of Egypt) marked the pharaonist highpoint of the 1920s. Pharaonist themes were also prominent on Egyptian postage stamps but not yet on coins, which are usually a more conservative medium.

Keywords:   Selim Hassan, Sami Gabra, Haykal, Pharaonism, School of Egyptology, Habachi, Stamps, Coins, Mukhtar, Generation

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