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Contesting Antiquity in EgyptArchaeologies, Museums, and the Struggle for Identities from World War I to Nasser$
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Donald Malcolm Reid

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9789774166891

Published to Cairo Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.5743/cairo/9789774166891.001.0001

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Egyptology and Pharaonism in Egypt before Tutankhamun

Egyptology and Pharaonism in Egypt before Tutankhamun

(p.19) 1 Egyptology and Pharaonism in Egypt before Tutankhamun
Contesting Antiquity in Egypt

Donald Malcolm Reid

American University in Cairo Press

This chapter reviews developments in Egyptology in Egypt from Napoleon's short-lived conquest in 1798 through the beginning of decolonization in 1922. Mariette began developing the Egyptian Antiquities Service and Cairo's Egyptian Museum in 1858, and his successor Maspero consolidated France's grip on these institutions while also founding IFAO (the Institut français d'archéologie oriental) in Cairo. After Britain conquered Egypt in 1882, Lord Cromer ruled it for a quarter of a century through an undeclared British protectorate. The leading British excavator, Petrie, was joined around the turn of the twentieth century by Borchardt, a German, and Reisner, an American, while Breasted, also American, became a leading philologist and historian of ancient Egypt. Although some medieval Egyptians had shown a positive interest in pharaonic antiquities, modern Egyptian Egyptology emerged in the later nineteenth century under European stimulus. Laboring under the difficult circumstances of colonialism, Ahmad Kamal, became the founding father of Egyptian Egyptology, while Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid and other nationalist intellectuals popularized the heritage of the pharaohs among their compatriots.

Keywords:   Mariette, Maspero, Egyptian Antiquities Service, Egyptian Museum, Ahmad Kamal, Petrie, Lutfi al-Sayyid, Colonialism, Reisner, Cromer

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