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Sustainability and Innovation$
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Salah M. El-Haggar

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9789774166471

Published to Cairo Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.5743/cairo/9789774166471.001.0001

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The Next Industrial Revolution

The Next Industrial Revolution

(p.67) Chapter 3 The Next Industrial Revolution
Sustainability and Innovation

Salah M. El-Haggar

American University in Cairo Press

This chapter begins by discussing the first and second industrial revolutions. The first industrial revolution began in England in the period from 1750 to 1850. It yielded innovations such as textiles, steam power, communication, and transportation. However, after two centuries of industrial progress, labor became abundant and natural resources were exploited in an unsustainable matter to the extent that they became scarce. The second industrial revolution will swiftly change the world, as the population realizes that wastes can be regarded as resources. It will improve people’s lives with minimum adverse effects on the environment. The remainder of the chapter deals with the third industrial revolution, covering the evolution of the third industrial revolution; the meaning of the third industrial revolution; the five main pillars of the third industrial revolution; how to achieve the third industrial revolution; and the end of mass production.

Keywords:   first industrial revolution, innovation, resource scarcity, second industrial revolution, third industrial revolution, sustainable economy

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