Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Amarna SunriseEgypt from Golden Age to Age of Heresy$

Aidan Dodson

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9789774166334

Published to Cairo Scholarship Online: September 2015

DOI: 10.5743/cairo/9789774166334.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM CAIRO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.cairo.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright The American University in Cairo Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CSO for personal use. Subscriber: null; date: 14 June 2021

(p.xiii) Abbreviations and Conventions

(p.xiii) Abbreviations and Conventions

Amarna Sunrise
American University in Cairo Press

  • Adelaide

    South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia

  • AL

    Amarna Letter

  • Ashmolean

    Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, U.K.

  • Basle

    Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig, Basel, Switzerland

  • Berlin

    ÄM Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussamlung, Berlin, Germany

  • Berlin

    VA Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, Germany

  • BM

    British Museum, London, U.K.

  • Bremen

    Übersee-Museum, Bremen, Germany

  • Brussels

    Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels, Belgium

  • Cairo

    Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt

  • Durham

    Oriental Museum, Durham, U.K.

  • Fitzwilliam

    Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, U.K.

  • Florence

    Museo Archeologico, Florence, Italy

  • KV

    Valley of the Kings tomb number

  • Leipzig

    Ägyptisches Museum der Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

  • l.p.h.

    life, prosperity, health (Abbreviations and Conventions, ͑nḫ wḏ3 snb), the wish often appended to the name of the king in inscriptions

  • Louvre

    Musée du Louvre, Paris, France

  • Luxor

    Luxor Museum of Ancient Egyptian Art, Luxor, Egypt

  • Lyon

    Palais des Arts, Lyon, France

  • MFA

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, U.S.A.

  • MMA

    Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, U.S.A.

  • (p.xiv) Munich

    Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst, Munich, Germany

  • Nicholson

    Nicholson Museum, University of Sydney, Australia

  • NMS

    National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, U.K.

  • NN

    No number, unnumbered

  • NRT

    Tanis royal cemetery tomb number

  • Nubian Mus.

    Nubian Museum, Aswan, Egypt

  • Ny Carlsberg

    Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, Denmark

  • o

    ostracon (followed by current location/number)

  • p

    papyrus (followed by current location/number)

  • Palermo

    Museo Archeologico, Palermo, Italy

  • Petrie

    Petrie Museum, University College London, U.K.

  • PT

    Pyramid Text spell

  • RMO

    Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden, Netherlands

  • ro.


  • TA

    Tell el-Amarna tomb number

  • Toledo

    Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, OH, U.S.A.

  • TT

    Theban Tomb number

  • Turin

    Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy


    University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.

  • Vienna

    Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

  • vo.


  • WV

    West Valley of the Kings tomb number

Where titles of individuals are capitalized, they are more or less direct translations of the original Egyptian. Renderings of Egyptian names are intended as far as possible to preserve the original consonantal structure of the original written Egyptian, rather than any hypothetical ancient pronunciation. Persons of the same name are distinguished by Roman numerals (upper case for kings and certain other senior figures; lower case for others) or letters, according to a basic system that has been developing within Egyptology since the 1970s (see Dodson and Hilton 2004: 39). This is not wholly internally coherent, as it is desirable to preserve some long-standing designations to avoid confusion.

Dates are given in Egyptian terms, which comprise a king’s regnal year together with the month and day. The Egyptian year was divided into three seasons, in succession 3ḫt, prt, and šmw, each of which was split into four months, each month in turn divided into thirty days; the year ended with five feast days. Thus, “III prt 4” means third month of prt, day 4.

(p.xv) Square brackets in names and translations normally enclose parts of the text that are damaged or missing in the original, and are accordingly shown as either restored (for example, Akh[enaten]) or unrestorable (for example, Akh[…]). Uncertain readings of signs are given thus: ┌Amen┐hotep. Where parentheses are used within translations they contain glosses or emendations for clarity (for example, the name of the protagonist, rather than the pronoun used in the original).

When giving bibliography for monuments and texts, references are generally restricted to Porter and Moss, various dates, and the transcriptions in Sethe 1906–1909 and Helck 1955–58, which together generally provide all substantive references down to their dates of publication; additional references provided are generally to works published subsequently or otherwise missed from these sources. German translations of the texts compiled by Sethe and Helck are provided in Sethe 1914 and Helck 1961, with English translations of texts compiled by the latter available in Breasted 1906–1907, Cumming 1982–84, B.G. Davies 1992–95, and Murnane 1995, the latter also including texts not collected by Helck.