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Race and Slavery in the Middle EastHistories of Trans-Saharan Africans in 19th-Century Egypt, Sudan, and
the Ottoman Mediterranean$
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Terence Walz and Kenneth M. Cuno

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9789774163982

Published to Cairo Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5743/cairo/9789774163982.001.0001

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Enslaved and Emancipated Africans on Crete

Enslaved and Emancipated Africans on Crete

(p.171) 7 Enslaved and Emancipated Africans on Crete
Race and Slavery in the Middle East

Terence Walz

Kenneth M. Cuno

American University in Cairo Press

As in Istanbul and Izmir, those on Crete practiced the religio-spiritual belief system known as zar/bori and celebrated a yearly “festival” in May that appears to mirror Izmir's festival in many respects. Trans-Saharan African slaves were for the most part acquired by Muslim owners, they were thus considered nominally Muslim and as a result they were, in the words of Esma Durugönül, statistically “non-existent”. The language used to describe trans-Saharan Africans in Ottoman (and modern) Turkish leads to additional problems. Nationalism has also rendered the study of trans-Saharan Africans in the late Ottoman Empire more difficult. It is presented in terms of southeastern Europe and western Anatolia, with a linear progression towards the rise of Atatürk and the modern Turkish Republic.

Keywords:   Istanbul, festival, Africans, nationalism, Anatolia

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