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Race and Slavery in the Middle EastHistories of Trans-Saharan Africans in 19th-Century Egypt, Sudan, and
the Ottoman Mediterranean$
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Terence Walz and Kenneth M. Cuno

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9789774163982

Published to Cairo Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5743/cairo/9789774163982.001.0001

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Enslaved and Emancipated Africans on Crete

Enslaved and Emancipated Africans on Crete

Chapter:
(p.171) 7 Enslaved and Emancipated Africans on Crete
Source:
Race and Slavery in the Middle East
Author(s):

Terence Walz

Kenneth M. Cuno

Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:10.5743/cairo/9789774163982.003.0008

As in Istanbul and Izmir, those on Crete practiced the religio-spiritual belief system known as zar/bori and celebrated a yearly “festival” in May that appears to mirror Izmir's festival in many respects. Trans-Saharan African slaves were for the most part acquired by Muslim owners, they were thus considered nominally Muslim and as a result they were, in the words of Esma Durugönül, statistically “non-existent”. The language used to describe trans-Saharan Africans in Ottoman (and modern) Turkish leads to additional problems. Nationalism has also rendered the study of trans-Saharan Africans in the late Ottoman Empire more difficult. It is presented in terms of southeastern Europe and western Anatolia, with a linear progression towards the rise of Atatürk and the modern Turkish Republic.

Keywords:   Istanbul, festival, Africans, nationalism, Anatolia

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