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Judges and Political Reform in Egypt$
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Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9789774162015

Published to Cairo Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.5743/cairo/9789774162015.001.0001

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Exceptional Courts and the Natural Judge

Exceptional Courts and the Natural Judge

(p.167) 10 Exceptional Courts and the Natural Judge
Judges and Political Reform in Egypt

Hafez Abu Seada

American University in Cairo Press

According to the Egyptian constitution of 1971, the right to litigation is inalienable, and no one shall be deprived of his natural judge. Several exceptional courts have been established by the legislature, however. The major characteristic of exceptional courts is that they try political opponents of the government in courts that lack the guarantees of a fair trial. The justifications advanced by the Egyptian authorities for referral to exceptional courts are the country's state of emergency and the presence of armed groups or those committing violence. However, some Egyptian citizens who have committed no acts of violence and adopted no methods aimed at pulling down the regime by force have been referred to these courts on the basis of fabricated accusations. The current Egyptian judicial system identifies four kinds of exceptional courts: state security emergency courts, military courts, courts of values, and the Court of Party Affairs.

Keywords:   Egyptian constitution, natural judge, exceptional courts, legislature, Egyptian authorities

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