Fuhula, or poetic virility, was a value that inhabited the popular consciousness, referring to that which ensured the continuity and sovereignty of the tribe. Poets who composed satirical lampoons or panegyric were valued over those who composed elegiac or lyric poetry. Women pioneers of the renaissance in Lebanon who were mindful of discrimination between Christians and Muslims, sought to strengthen the Arabic language as part of the liberation project from Ottoman tyranny and Turkization, and took Arab nationalism as their national identity. Lebanese women also played a notable role in establishing and writing for newspapers and magazines. It must be noted that women's experience with autobiography does not differ from men's. Arabic literature in general has eschewed this type of writing, compensating with what we might call autobiographical novels.
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