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The Coptic Papacy in Islamic Egypt (641–1517)The Popes of Egypt: A History of the Coptic Church and Its Patriarchs Volume 2$
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Mark N. Swanson

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9789774160936

Published to Cairo Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5743/cairo/9789774160936.001.0001

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Humility in Action

Humility in Action

Gabriel V (#88, 1409–1427)

John XI (#89, 1427–1452)

Matthew II (#90, 1452–1465)

Gabriel VI (#91, 1466–1474)

Michael VI (#92, 1477–1478)

John XII (#93, 1480–1482)

John XIII (#94, 1484–1524)

(p.119) Nine Humility in Action
The Coptic Papacy in Islamic Egypt (641–1517)

Mark N. Swanson

American University in Cairo Press

The last patriarch of the period, John XIII, was repeatedly pressed for funds in order to finance the wars of Sultan Qaitbay and his successors against the Ottomans (from 1484) and the Portuguese. Those wars would be in vain. The patriarch's humility is a recurring theme: not humility wrapped in signs and wonders but humility of a tough, practical sort well suited to the times. Christians were not specially singled out by Mamluk revenue collectors, any more than they were singled out by the effects of insufficient Nile flooding and famine or outbreaks of plague. The constant pressure on the Coptic elite meant ongoing conversions to Islam and, for the Coptic community as a whole, the loss of prominent members and their wealth.

Keywords:   Portuguese, humility, Mamluk, Nile, plague

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