A number of bull cults were present in ancient Egypt. The detailed ideas behind their inceptions are nowhere set out, but it seems very likely that there are connections with the broad concept of the bull as a manifestation of physical and sexual power. This kind of link certainly lay behind the adoption of the tag of ‘Strong Bull’ as part of the Horus names of the pharaohs of the Eighteenth through Twenty-second Dynasties. The best attested bull cults are those of the Apis at Memphis (sacred to Ptah), Buchis at Armant and al-Tod (Montu), and Mnevis at Heliopolis (Re). Others existed elsewhere, including Cynopolis (Bata), Athribis (Kemwer), and in Nome UE11 (Hesbu) (Otto 193811964). This chapter discusses all these bull cults in detail.
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