Girʼga, Abydos, &c.—Denʼdarʼa.
Girʼga, Abydos, &c.—Denʼdarʼa.
Abstract and Keywords
Gir'ga, or Jir'ja, is still a large and flourishing town; but not so populous or wealthy as it was prior to the fall of the Memloo'ks; for during the period of their ascendancy it was the capital of Upper Egypt. Its numerous ma'd'nehs render its distant appearance rather imposing. Several of its mosques are very well built; and it contains extensive soo'cks. It suffers, like several other towns in Egypt, from the encroachments of the river during every successive inundation; large portions of the bank falling from the violence of the current, and from being saturated with water. This chapter describes the monuments of Abydos. It also talks about the town of Furshoo't, and a village named Den'dar'a (Tentyra) and its monuments.
Girʼga—Monuments of Abydos—Furshooʼt—Hooʼ (Diospolis Parva)—Denʼdarʼa (Tentyra), and its monuments.
Girʼga, or Jirʼja,1 , is still a large and flourishing town; but not so populous or wealthy as it was prior to the fall of the Memlooʼks; for during the period of their ascendancy it was the capital of Upper Egypt. Its numerous maʼdʼnehs render its distant appearance rather imposing. Several of its mosques are very well built; and it contains extensive sooʼcks. It suffers, like several other towns in Egypt, from the encroachments of the river during every successive inundation; large portions of the bank falling from the violence of the current, and from being saturated with water. There is a large Roman Catholic convent at this place; but only one monk was residing in it at the period of my visit; and there had been none other there for many previous years: he had thrown off his monastic habit, and adopted the common dress of the Egyptian felʼlaʼheeʼn. Few converts to his faith had been gained here; as the Copts are, of all Christians, the most bigoted.†
On the 22nd, having hired a donkey, I set off a little before sunrise to visit the monuments of Abydos, accompanied by a servant and a guide. The extensive plain over which we passed is one of the richest and best cultivated tracts in Egypt. Where the soil had been lately sown, the peasants were raising the water for irrigation from pits, or wide wells, by means of the shaʼdooʼf. The plain is interspersed with many palm-groves and villages. After a loitering ride of about three hours we arrived at the ruins.—On a subsequent occasion I chose a better route to this spot; landing at Belʼyenʼë, a large village; from whence to the site of Abydos is a journey of about two hours. Midway in this route, we passed through part of a plantation of sunt-trees, which extends a considerable distance towards the east south-east; occupying (it is said) no less than a thousand feddaʼns (or more than a thousand acres).
The site of Abydos is just within the confines of the desert, behind the villages of El-ʼArʼabah and El-Khirʼbeh. Here we find a vast edifice, of high antiquity, buried nearly to the roof by rubbish and the drifted sand of the desert. It is doubtless the building to which Strabo and Pliny have (p.275) given the name of Memnonium, or the palace of Memnon. It occupies a space rather more than 350 feet in length; from south-east to north-east. The epithet “El-Medʼfooʼneh” (or “the buried”), which is sometimes given to the neighbouring village of El-ʼArʼabah, more properly applies to this building. No entrance is visible from without; but in two parts, where the roof has fallen in, we may descend into the interior. Here, also, the sand has accumulated so high that we have to crawl for some space on our hands and knees, among the capitals of the columns which support the roof. The shafts of these columns are, at the top, four feet three inches in diameter: the capitals are similar to those of the side-columns in the great portico of Kurʼnak.1 It is very difficult to trace the disposition of the various apartments in this great edifice; but the interior does not seem to resemble very nearly any other Egyptian building: it is very spacious; and contains a vast number of columns; all of which are more or less buried in sand. The sculptures of the columns, architraves, and walls shew that the structure was erected, or at least originally sculptured, under the immediate predecessor and father of Rameses the 2nd. The more ancient sculptures on the walls were in very low relief: these have been planed down, and fresh sculptures executed in their place, in intaglio, by Rameses the 2nd: but the original sculpture on the architraves was in intaglio; and here we find the first name, which is that of the father of Rameses the 2nd, filled up with plaster, and the name of the son cut over it: the plaster, in some parts, has fallen out, and exposed the artifice. The original name is also, in some instances, effaced, without any other being sculptured over it. The sculptures are similar to those which adorn most of the temples of Egypt; being representations of the king in whose reign they were executed adoring and presenting offerings to various divinities. Along that side of the edifice which is towards the mountains (the south-western) we find a row of chambers with arched roofs, extending, side by side, along the whole width of the building. The manner in which the roofs of these chambers are constructed, which is not on the principal of the masonic arch, is shewn by a view which I made.2 The walls are of a very white and compact lime-stone: the roofs, of sandstone. The sculptures within are of the more ancient date. The ovals containing the name of the predecessor of Rameses the 2nd, intermixed with stars, decorate the arched roofs. There are remains of a portico (seen in the view above referred to) adjoining the row of arched chambers. The architraves and columns of this bear the sculptures and name of the older king.
At a short distance to the north-west of this great edifice are remains of another building (perhaps the temple of Osiris mentioned by Pliny), not so extensive as the former, and more ruined. Some large blocks of red and black granite, covered with sculpture, the remains of three handsome portals, rise above the sand and ancient rubbish; and some ruined walls, (p.276) composed of white lime-stone, and ornamented with painted sculptures, the colours of which are still very brilliant, have been laid bare. Upon these we find the same two names as on the greater edifice; and upon the right side-wall of a small apartment, which is 24 feet and a half in length, and 8 feet 9 inches wide, is sculptured the famous record of the successions of many Egyptian kings, which was discovered by Mr. Bankes, in 1818. This consists of three horizontal rows of kings' names, enclosed, as usual, in ovals; one row below another. Each row original[ly] consisted of twenty-six ovals; but several are wanting at the commencement (which is the right extremity) of each: half of the first row is deficient; and eight names of the second are lost: this is owing to a part of the wall having been thrown down. The remaining names of the first row are of unknown kings. The second row contains the names of some kings of the 17th Dynasty, and a complete list of the 18th Dynasty, and terminates with the name of Rameses the 2nd, who was the head of the 19th. The lowest row merely contains variations of the name of this Rameses; under whose order the sculpture was evidently executed. This record is the principal authority for the most important part of the list of kings appended to the last volume of the present work†; and it is confirmed by several other minor lists and legends on various Egyptian monuments.1
In the desert, adjacent to the site of Abydos, and in the neighbouring mountains, are numerous sepulchral catacombs; and a large collection of very curious and beautiful relics of antiquity has been made by excavating here; many of them, of the times of the 17th Dynasty.
Abydos was once, according to Strabo, a very great city: it was deemed to have been second only to Thebes; but the author here cited adds that, in his time, it had sunk into insignificance. We are told, also, that it was one of those cities which laid claim to the honour of being regarded as the burial-place of Osiris; and that it was famous for certain very sacred mysteries, and for a highly revered oracle. It was probably the furthest city of the Thinite nome: the next nome on that side of the Nile was the Diospolite (or that of Diospolis Parva).
23rd. Continuing our voyage, from Girʼga, we find the scenery more varied; doʼms, nubeks, and acacias being intermixed among the palm-trees which, in large groves, here and there line the banks of the river. The houses are generally raised higher than those in the more northern parts of the Saʼeeʼd; having an upper story appropriated to pigeons. In (p.277) the morning of this day we saw three crocodiles basking in the sun, upon a sand-bank; and shortly after, upon another sand-bank, we saw nine of these animals, lying asleep, with their mouths wide open.1 At night we lay near the entrance of the canal of Bahgooʼrah, which flows near the town of Fursbooʼt, or Firshoʼt , about an hour's journey inland, from this point.
Furshooʼt was the capital, or chief place of residence, of the famous Hemmaʼm, Sheykh of the Hawaʼrah Arabs, who, in the time of the great ʼAlʼee Bey, the Memlooʼk, had made himself the absolute master of half of Upper Egypt, from Asyooʼt upwards; and also of Nubia, as far as the frontiers of Dunʼckalʼah, or Dunʼgalʼah. So great was his power that the Memlooʼks were unable to overcome him: after a vigorous, but vain attempt to do so, they were induced formally to cede to him the provinces of Upper Egypt from the small town of Burdee's, which is just above Girʼga. In the following year after this treaty, the Memlooʼks, led by the same chief as on the former occasion, Mohhamʼmad Abʼoo Dahʼab, made another attempt to subdue Hemmaʼm. They were so far successful as to compel him to retire before them; and this event affected him in such a manner as to bring him to the grave in the course of a few days. He died in Shaabaʼn, 1183 (or at the close of the year 1769 of the Christian era). His son Durweeʼsh succeeded him; but was dependant on the Memlooʼks.
24th. About three miles beyond the entrance of the canal of Bahgooʼrah, on the same side of the Nile, is the village of Hooʼ , situated on the mounds of rubbish which cover the site of Diospolis Parva. Just above this place, the river flowing nearly from north to south, for the space of a few miles, and the wind being nearly in the same direction, we with difficulty advanced three miles in as many hours; making short and frequent tacks. On our left, near the village of Ckusr es-Seiyaʼd , we observed extensive mounds, which are supposed to occupy the site of Chœnoboscion. The tract in which these mounds are situated is encompassed on the east, south, and west, by the Nile; and, during a great part of the year, is rendered an island, by a narrow branch of the river, which flows along the northern side, parallel with the mountains, and very near to their base.
25th. Our course up the river this day varied from south-east to north-east. The wind, being from the same quarter as yesterday, was favourable to us; though light. We now found the cultivable land, on each side of the river, very contracted; particularly on the Libyan, or southern side; in one part of which, a slightly elevated tract of desert bordered the stream. We had probably passed, early in this day, the point where the Tentyrite nome commenced, on the Libyan side of the Nile; and the commencement of the Coptite nome on the opposite, or Arabian side. In the evening we arrived within about four miles of Denʼdarʼa.
(p.278) 26th. Denʼdarʼa , or Denʼdarʼah , is situated on the Libyan side of the Nile, a little below the point where the river changes its course from north to west. Approaching that village, in ascending the Nile, we find the bank on the same side lined with doʼms and date-palms. Denʼdarʼa derives its name from its being the nearest village to the site of the ancient city of Tentyra, or Tentyris. The river just before it is very shallow; and at this season nearly half its bed is dry. Over this sandy space I walked to the village, which is surrounded by doʼms, intermixed with the common date-palms, and with turʼfas and nubeks, which compose an agreeable variety of foliage. The plain behind us is, for the most part, well cultivated, as far as the desert; on the boundaries of which, about a mile and a half distant from the river, are the remains of Tentyra. Here, in the midst of extensive mounds, and among the ruined, crude-brick walls of the houses of the last inhabitants of that town, stands the magnificent temple of Athor; one of the most sumptuous monuments of ancient Egypt. The upper part of this building, together with a portal before it, and five remaining columns of a small temple in the same direction, are visible from the cultivated fields over which lies our route.—The great temple of Denʼdarʼa must attract a high degree of admiration from every traveller by its grandeur and beauty, and because it is the first temple in an almost perfect state that he beholds in his voyage up the Nile. It is to be admired as a monument of architecture, and for the profusion of its sculptures; for the whole of the exterior, and almost every part of the interior, are elaborately ornamented with sculptures: but the style of these decorations (which were executed at the close of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and under several Roman Emperors) is extremely bad: when the traveller has been accustomed to Pharaonic sculptures he will be little pleased with those of Denʼdarʼa.
On arriving at the mounds, the first object that attracted my attention was a small, unfinished, and ruined temple, before alluded to.1 It originally consisted of fourteen columns, connected by a wall about half their height: there were four columns in one direction, and five in the other. The capitals, and every other part, are unfinished, and therefore have no hieroglyphics or other sculptures. Between the two middle columns of each end was a door-way, making a free passage through the building, exactly directed towards the front of the great temple; which faces Ν. 27° E. by compass. Proceeding hence towards the great temple, we arrive at a stone portal, which was built into a great wall of crude brick that surrounded the principal sacred edifices of Tentyra. A portal of this kind is often found forming the entrance of an enclosure of crude brick; but more generally, connecting the two wings of a propylæum. The great enclosure of Denʼdarʼa is nearly a thousand feet square. The walls, in their present ruined state, rise thirty feet, or more, above the rubbish, in some parts; and are about sixteen feet thick. The bricks are fifteen inches and a half in length; seven and a half, or eight, in breadth, (p.279) and four and a half, or five, in thickness. There are two entrances to the enclosure besides that already mentioned: one is on the east, and has a similar stone portal: the other is in the middle of the southern end; and appears to be merely a breach. About one third of the portal in front of the great temple is buried in rubbish, and a considerable portion of the fore part of it has been destroyed. It is covered with sculptures, which have a rich effect, though their style is bad. The hieroglyphic names attached are those of Domitian and Trajan; who are represented worshipping and offering to Athor and other divinities. Upon Egyptian monuments, the Roman Emperors are never represented otherwise than in the dress, and with the insignia, of Egyptian monarchs; and none of the representations of those kings are portraits, or have any distinguishing physiognomy. The features have a soft and effeminate expression: and so have those of the Ptolemies. The figures and countenances of the kings and others in the more ancient sculptures are of a character both beautiful and manly. In the representations of the Pharaohs of different ages we see certain characteristic differences; but these differences, I think, are rather the results of a progressive improvement, and subsequent decline, in the style of art than of any attempt at individual portraiture.† —Passing through the portal above described, we proceed towards the front of the great temple; leaving on our right, just within the great wall of enclosure, a small temple called the Typhonium.
The great temple stands in the midst of the enclosure; and is surrounded by ruined houses of crude brick, and partly buried in rubbish. The portico which forms the front of this edifice has a magnificent appearance:1 its width is about 135 feet; which is a little more than half the length of the entire building; and it contains twenty-four columns, arranged in six rows. The diameter of each column is seven feet and a half at the base; and about seven feet just below the capital: the capital alone is about sixteen feet high; and the height of the whole column is about forty-six or forty-seven feet. The capitals are very (p.280) singular: they are of a square form; with the full face of the goddess Athor sculptured on each of the four sides. Not one of these faces in the front is entire: but this is fortunate for the general effect; for, from some in the interior that are less injured, we may discover that the expression of the countenance was far from being pleasing: the eyes being very near together; the cheeks broad and puffy: the ears were designed to resemble those of a cow (the emblem of Athor); and seem to be pulled out in an awkward manner. Above this part of the capital is a cubic mass, resembling a little temple; on each side of which is sculptured Athor, nursing Horus, who sits on her knee, and receiving an offering. In the centre of the cornice, over the entrance, is the usual ornament of the winged globe. Above this is a Greek inscription, recording the dedication of the pronaos (or portico), by the inhabitants of the city and nome of Tentyra, in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, to Aphrodite (or Athor) and the other divinities of the temple. This inscription is in three lines: some parts of it are obliterated; but apparently only the name of a person, probably a governor of Egypt, and a few letters at the end, perhaps containing a date. Upon the architrave over the entrance is sculptured the full face of Athor; and on each side of this the same goddess is represented sitting, with Horus behind her, and receiving offerings from a long procession of persons. The columns of the front row are connected, to more than half the height of the shaft, by a wall, which is concealed in the view which I have given by the accumulated rubbish. The entrance, which is between the two middle columns, was furnished with folding doors, turning upon pivots: a block of granite is inserted on each side to receive these pivots: all the other parts of the building are of sandstone; but the difference in the nature of the stone was not apparent here originally; as every part was painted. The paint still adheres to some parts of the columns and walls; and is seen to have been very brilliant; consisting, as usual, of red, yellow, green, blue, and black, applied upon a white ground. The interior of the portico is extremely grand and beautiful: the highly-finished sculptures on the columns and walls produce a very rich effect, notwithstanding the badness of their style, which is characterized by lumpy forms, faces devoid of any pleasing expression, and figures utterly graceless. The same remarks apply to the sculptures in every part of this temple. The portico was sculptured in the reigns of Tiberius, Caius Caligula, and Nero; and we may conclude hence, and from the Greek inscription before mentioned, that it was built under the first of those emperors. That it was posterior to the main body of the temple is certain: it is plainly seen to be a subsequent addition; and some of the sculptures on the other part have the names of the last Cleopatra and her son Ptolemy Cæsar, or Cæsarion. The temple, therefore, appears to have been founded by this queen: its decorations were continued by Augustus, and later emperors. The subjects of the sculptures on the columns and walls of the portico are offerings, presented, in almost every case, to Athor, by the monarchs above-mentioned; each of whom is distinguished by his hieroglyphic name. The (p.281) sculptures on the ceiling are very remarkable. The central compartment is ornamented with winged globes and vultures; each alternately. In the compartment next on the right is represented, among many other mystic devices, an eye enclosed in a circle, and supported by a boat: to the left of it are four birds with human heads and hands; and to the right, figures with jackals' heads, in an attitude of adoration. Next to this subject, to the left, is represented another eye in a circle, supported by a crescent, upon a short stem; and fourteen figures are ascending a flight of steps towards this strange object of adoration, which was an emblem, I believe, of the god Khem, or Pan.1 Processions of men and monsters, apes, jackals, serpents, birds, &c, with several boats, bearing the figures or emblems of gods, are also sculptured upon the ceiling of this portico. The two compartments of the ceiling next the side-walls are occupied by the celebrated zodiac.
It has been supposed that this zodiac was designed to shew the period at which it was sculptured—that the summer-solstice, or the commencement of a particular cycle, or other period, of the Egyptian calendar, corresponded at that time to some part of the sign of Cancer, or of that of Leo; but rather of the former; for the sign of [C]ancer is expressed by two beetles; one at the end of the ascending signs, and the other at the commencement of the descending signs: therefore Leo is only the first complete descending sign. We find, indeed, from the Greek inscription on the cornice, and from the hieroglyphic names of Tiberius, Caligula, and Nero, among the sculptures, that the portico was constructed at a period when the summer-solstice was in Cancer, and when the commencement of the vague Egyptian year corresponded to the sign of Leo. But if we adopt either of these interpretations we are at a loss to account for the difference in the zodiac of Isʼna; in which, though it was sculptured at about the same period as that of Denʼdarʼa, or rather later, the first of the descending signs is Virgo, We cannot reject the proofs of the age of the portico of Isʼna afforded by the hieroglyphic names of Roman Emperors found throughout its decorations, and suppose that it was built at a period when the summer-solstice was in Virgo, or when the vague Egyptian year corresponded to that sign. Under these circumstances, therefore, I cannot but regard the representations of the zodiac in Egyptian temples as merely designed to convey some mythological or astrological information.
The main body of the great temple of Denʼdarʼa, which is proved, by the occurrence of the names of the last Cleopatra and her son Ptolemy Cæsar among its sculptures, to be more ancient that the portico, contains four principal apartments on the ground-floor, and several smaller chambers around those four, and in the upper part. The original front of the temple forms the back of the great portico; but with a small addition on each side and at the top; for the portico is both wider and higher than (p.282) the rest of the temple. The first apartment behind the great portico has two rows of columns; three in each row; similar to the former columns, excepting that they have the addition of another capital, of a more common form, below that which is ornamented with the face of Athor. This and the succeeding chambers are nearly filled with rubbish: they receive but a feeble light from the entrance, and from narrow horizontal apertures in the sides, and small holes in the ceiling. The second and third chambers are small, but wide. The fourth is an oblong chamber: this was the sanctuary. The walls of all these apartments are decorated with sculptures, representing the usual subjects, of offerings, &c. From the third chamber we pass through a door-way on the right, and ascend, by a handsome, though rather narrow stair-case, to the upper apartments. The walls of the stair-case are sculptured with figures carrying offerings; on the right side, ascending; on the left, descending. The roof of the temple does not present a uniform surface; for the chambers below are of unequal heights. Next the great portico are six small chambers; three on the west (where is the exit from the stairs), and three on the eastern side. The first of the former has its walls ornamented chiefly with hieroglyphics. The second chamber has a curious device sculptured on its ceiling: a female figure, emblematic of the firmament, is represented stretching (with the arms and legs at right-angles to the body) over a distorted male figure, apparently designed as an emblem of the earth. The ceiling of the third chamber is decorated with similar sculptures. The three corresponding chambers, also, have sculptures of the same kind. In the central one was the circular zodiac, which has been removed to Paris: it occupied half of the ceiling. The sculptures on the walls of the third of these chambers are illustrative of the death and resurrection of Osiris.1 The greater part of the roof of the temple originally presented an open area, bounded by the exterior walls of the edifice, which rise considerably higher; but this part of the building, and the top of the great portico, are now encumbered with numerous ruined walls of huts, composed of crude brick. At the south-west angle of the roof is a small edifice, resembling a distinct temple, composed of twelve columns, connected by a low wall, and enclosing a square space: the columns are similar to those of the great portico.
The exterior of the temple is profusely decorated with sculptures, which, like those of the interior, are remarkable for little else but bad taste and elaborate finishing. Three figures of demi-lions, in a reposing posture, project from each of the side-walls; and two from the end-wall: each rests upon a corbel; and between the outstretched fore-legs is an aperture perforated through the wall, for the escape of rain-water from the depressed parts of the roof. The eastern side is more than half concealed by the accumulation of rubbish; by which one easily ascends, (p.283) through a forced aperture in the wall, to the top of the roof. Among the subjects sculptured on this wall is a sacrifice of four human victims; and on the same wall is a representation, on a small scale, of several persons climbing up ropes which are attached to a pole fixed in the ground. In the centre of the back-wall of the temple is sculptured a colossal full face of Athor, which is much mutilated.
Behind this great temple of Athor, near its south-west angle, is a small temple of Isis; the regular approach to which is through a stone portal (before alluded to) built into the eastern side of the great crude-brick enclosure. This portal was erected (or at least sculptured) in the reign of Antoninus Pius. On the cornice, on each side, is a Greek inscription, recording that—“under the Emperor Cæsar, God, Son of Zeus Eleutherios,1 Augustus,—Publius Octavius being Governor, and Marcus Claudius General in chief, and Tryphon General,—the inhabitants of the metropolis and nome (dedicated) the propylon to the most great goddess Isis, and to the other divinities of the temple—.” The little temple of Isis faces the back of the great temple of Athor; its left side being directed towards the portal which leads to it.2 It is about thirty-six feet square; and is divided into four apartments; the first of which is a transverse gallery, of the whole width of the building: the other three are side by side; and the central of these is the sanctuary; and it is therefore the largest. The right side of the building, and part of the front wall, are ruined. The subjects of the sculptures are chiefly offerings to Isis and Horus, who are represented in the usual manner and, in some instances, by the emblems of a cow and a hawk.
The Typhonium† (the situation of which I have already pointed out as just within the great crude-brick enclosure, to the right as one enters by the portal before the temple of Athor) is almost entirely buried in rubbish. It is surrounded on either side, and at the back (and was also, originally, in front), by a row of columns, which have a cubic block above the capital, with the hideous figure of Typhon sculptured in relief on each side. The columns are unfinished; and so, also, is the exterior of the body of the temple. The decorations were begun under Trajan, and continued under Adrian and Antoninus. Upon the architraves we find Harpocrates represented, sitting upon a lotus-flower, between two Typhonian figures, male and female. The fore-part (or eastern part) of the temple is much ruined. The roof, and part of the walls, of the first chamber have been demolished. From this chamber we pass to a second and a third. The last is the sanctuary. Here, in the centre of the end-wall, is sculptured a kind of shrine, resembling a false door; and above this, in a small niche, is a figure of Harpocrates, in a standing posture, with his (p.284) finger, as usual, placed to his lips. This figure is much mutilated: the god which it represents is the principal object among the sculptures upon the walls throughout the temple: he is generally represented with his mother, or with Athor, who is presenting her breast to him.
(†) Lane took for granted the reader's awareness that there was no question of the monk's proselytizing among Muslims. Such an effort would have resulted in his expulsion, or worse. Missionaries in Egypt concentrated their efforts on Egypt's Coptic Christian minority.
(†) Fig. 160.
(†) The following passage, written on a separate sheet of paper and inserted further down in the manuscript, may have been a never-completed revision for the preceding passage in the text. “But that the effigies of the Pharaohs upon their own monuments are generally portraits, in the common acceptation of the term, I cannot admit: those of different Kings are too much alike, and too uniformly handsome; and those of the same Monarch too often unlike. Without any desire to deceive others, a person may single out the most unusual of each of the representatives of the Pharaohs, and give a copy of it as a portrait; and when I consider the high and just reputation, as Egn. Antiquaries, of some who have done so, I wish that I could agree with them as to this point. Even the differences which are observable in the representations of different Pharaohs may, I think, be reasonably supposed to be, in some degree, the results of their having been not know a single portrait upon any Egn. monument.”
(†) The Roman period birth house.
(1) See plate 11 [missing].
(1) Seen in plate 24 [fig. 82].
(1) Upon some remains of another temple, which were being removed for the purpose of building a bridge, Mr. Gliddon found the names of Osiris and Rameses, and also a portion of the name which accompanies the sun at Tell el-ʼAmárineh, as follows:
(1) They are always very numerous in this part of the Nile.
(1) See plate 13 [fig. 71].
(1) See plate 14 [fig. 72].
(1) It is put for Khem in a group of hieroglyphics signifying Egypt, or the Land of Khem.
(1) A copy of some similar sculptures in an upper chamber of the great temple of Philæ, from a drawing by Mr. Wilkinson, has been published in the collection of hieroglyphics of the Royal Society of Literature.
(1) A title of Adrian [Hadrian], the adoptive father of Antoninus Pius.
(2) See plate 12 [fig. 70].
(2) The hieroglyphic name of the king who is represented upon its walls, both within and without, offering to the Gods, reads merely, “Cæsar (Kaisaros) Ever Living, beloved of Phtha and Isis.”