This concluding chapter briefly recounts the Egypt's later succession of rulers following the Persian recapture of the state during Nakhthorheb's reign. Egypt would not see independence for another one and three-quarters millennia—the Persians ruled for some ten more years before being expelled by Alexander the Great of Macedon. At the breakup of that great conqueror's empire, Egypt fell into the hands of his general, Ptolemy, son of Lagos, who founded a Hellenistic line that was to control Egypt for three centuries. The tail end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty brought Egypt to Rome's attention, and thereafter it spent the next six centuries as part of the Roman and Byzantine empires. After that, Egypt saw a succession of further foreign control from the Ottoman Empire and later the United Kingdom, before the Egyptian monarchy would be formally reinstituted.
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