For transliteration, I have followed the system preferred by the AUC Press, which is close to that of the International Journal of Middle East Studies. Familiar English spellings are preferred for proper names such as Cairo, Sohag, Akhmim, and Umm Ashour. The symbols for ‘ayn (‘) and hamza (’) have been used; diacritical marks have been omitted. For example, the letter ‘h’ is used for the Arabic ha’ (ح), in words such as hadra (حضرة), reeh (ريح), zar al-bahr (زار البحر) , or the proper nouns Samah (سماح) or Sabah (صباح). No distinction is made between this ha’ and the ha (ه), pronounced the same as the English ‘h’ (as in the word ‘honey’). Most of the Arabic words are in ‘ammiya, the spoken Arabic of Cairo, unless I was using other authors’ input.